The ability of the human body to function with the necessary vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue and with sufficient energy to engage in leisure activities, as well as the ability to overcome physical stress is the essence of fitness.
The point of fitness is not to be thin, have a small waist, or bold accented muscles. It is a combination of qualities that enable us to come to our full potential in performing extreme physical activity.
In the physical sense, fitness includes the heart, lungs and the work of all muscle groups in the body.
Fitness takes into account our cardio respiratory endurance, muscular strength, endurance and flexibility.
To some extent, fitness activity affects our mental health and emotional development since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds.
Although physical fitness and good health influence each other, it is not the same thing. Truly healthy people may be physically unfit due to lack of physical activity.
On the other hand, physically fit people perform their everyday tasks with less effort, it does not mean that they are also physically healthy in the medical sense.
So, the concept of fitness can be characterized as the ability to perform physical effort, and at the same time leave enough energy reserves to counter any sudden, additional physical challenge.
Being fit means having good physical and mental health, good physical condition resulting from regular physical exercise and proper nutrition.
Feeling good about yourself, be healthy and being able to perform everyday obligations is the goal of every individual. It is also the main goal of fitness.
So, fitness includes five primary components:
– Cardiovascular capacity
– Muscular strength and muscular endurance
– Mental focus
– Body composition
Cardiovascular fitness (endurance) as the first component of fitness can easily be described as the ability to implement exercises involving large muscle, dynamic exercises of medium to high intensity for a long period.
The development of the cardiovascular system has many beneficial effects: increased level of power and durability, reduced blood pressure and arterial pressure, reduction of natural fats, prevention of heart disease, lower heart rate at rest and on activity as compared to an untrained person, reduction of pain sensitivity due to greater levels of endorphins in the brain, increase the weight of bones, etc.
Muscle strength as an integral part of fitness is nothing more than the ability of muscles to work against resistance, and is achieved by gradually increasing the weights when performing resistance training (weight training).
This results in an increase in lean non-fat body mass, increased density and bone mass, increasing the rate of basal metabolic rate, increased coordination and others.
Muscular endurance as a component of fitness is defined as the ability of muscles to frequently contract or shorten for a long time, but not become exhausted.
Muscular endurance is achieved by increasing the number of repetitions in training with resistance (weights).
Muscular endurance is the key component in raising the level of energy required to perform daily activities, recreational activities as well as the planned training.
Flexibility is an integral part of fitness is also of paramount importance. It is presented as the ability of the joints, tendons, muscles to undergo a full range of motion, starting ability, movement and recovery without injury.
Flexibility is mobility, freedom of movement or possible range of movement in each joint, or a group of joints throughout the body.
Greater flexibility means less chance of injuries during training and greatly increases the quality of performance in the training.
Body composition is the proportion of muscle, bone, fat and other tissue which together constitute the total weight.